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Monday, May 27, 2024

List of U.S. states and territories by African-American population

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Proportion of African Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census Proportion of black Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census The following is a list of U.S. states , territories and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans of full or partial descent including those of Hispanic origin, in the population. Considering only those who marked “black” and no other race in combination as in the first table, the percentage was 12.4% in 2020, down from 12.6% in 2010. [1] Considering those who marked “black” and any other race in combination as in the second table the percentage increased from 13.6% to 14.2%.

2020 census (single race) % Black or African
American alone [2] Rank State or territory Black or African American alone
Population (2020) 76.0% 1 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 80,908 [3] 44.17% 2 District of Columbia 385,810 37.94% 3 Mississippi 1,084,481 33.13% 4 Louisiana 1,564,023 33.03% 5 Georgia 3,538,146 32.01% 6 Maryland 2,220,472 29.80% 7 Alabama 1,696,162 27.09% 8 South Carolina 1,680,531 23.50% 9 North Carolina 2,350,217 22.11% 10 Delaware 218,899 21.60% 11 Virginia 1,607,581 19.80% 12 Tennessee 1,492,948 17.11% 13 Florida 3,703,952 17.10% 14 Arkansas 853,783 16.89% 15 New York 3,533,873 16.19% 16 Illinois 2,108,271 15.76% 17 Michigan 1,576,579 15.19% 18 New Jersey 1,519,770 14.20% − United States of America 47,511,020 12.58% 19 Ohio 1,258,781 12.21% 20 Texas 3,964,700 11.40% 21 Missouri 799,840 11.30% 22 Pennsylvania 1,490,169 10.88% 23 Connecticut 388,675 10.80% 24 Nevada 404,739 10.60% 25 Indiana 748,513 8.09% 26 Kentucky 462,417 7.39% 27 Oklahoma 389,961 7.09% 28 Massachusetts 594,029 7.08% 29 Minnesota 598,434 7.46% 30 Puerto Rico 328,711 6.40% 31 Wisconsin 476,256 6.30% 32 California 2,825,293 5.79% 33 Kansas 308,809 5.78% 34 Rhode Island 92,168 5.77% 35 Nebraska 196,535 5.76% 36 Arizona 439,150 5.19% 37 Colorado 334,828 5.14% 38 Iowa 231,972 5.09% 39 Washington 407,565 3.9% 40 North Dakota 30,067 3.76% 41 West Virginia 165,813 3.70% 42 Alaska 31,898 2.28% 43 New Mexico 55,904 2.26% 44 Oregon 182,655 2.24% 45 South Dakota 27,842 1.90% 46 Maine 25,752 1.60% 47 Hawaii 23,417 1.50% 48 New Hampshire 20,127 1.40% 49 Vermont 9,034 1.20% 50 Utah 62,058 1.0% [4] 51 Guam 1,540 [4] 0.99% 52 Idaho 15,726 0.91% 53 Wyoming 5,232 0.50% 54 Montana 5,484 0.1% [5] 55 Northern Mariana Islands 55 [5] 0.02% [6] 56 American Samoa 13 [6] African-American proportion of state and territory populations (1790–2020)[ edit ]

From 1787 to 1868, enslaved African-Americans were counted in the U.S. census under the Three-fifths Compromise . The compromise was an agreement reached during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention over the counting of slaves in determining a state’s total population. This count would determine the number of seats in the House of Representatives and how much each state would pay in taxes. The compromise counted three-fifths of each state’s slave population toward that state’s total population for the purpose of apportioning the House of Representatives. Even though slaves were denied voting rights, this gave Southern states more Representatives and more presidential electoral votes than if slaves had not been counted. Free blacks and indentured servants were not subject to the compromise, and each was counted as one full person for representation. [7]

In the United States Constitution, the Three-fifths Compromise is part of Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3. Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) later superseded this clause and explicitly repealed the compromise. African-American % of Population (1790–1990) Black or African American alone or in combination (2000-2020) by U.S. state and territory [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] State/Territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 United States of America 19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.9% 13.6% 14.2% Alabama 41.4% 29.0% 33.2% 38.5% 43.3% 44.7% 45.4% 47.7% 47.5% 44.8% 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.3% 26.8% Alaska 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 4.3% 4.7% 4.8% American Samoa 0.02% 0.04% 0.02% Arizona 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.6% 5.0% 6.2% Arkansas 13.0% 11.7% 15.5% 20.9% 22.7% 25.6% 25.2% 26.3% 27.4% 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 16.0% 16.1% 16.5% California 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 7.4% 7.2% 7.1% Colorado 0.1% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 4.4% 5.0% 5.5% Connecticut 2.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 10.0% 11.3% 13.0% Delaware 21.6% 22.4% 23.8% 24.0% 24.9% 25.0% 22.2% 19.3% 18.2% 18.0% 16.8% 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 20.1% 22.9% 24.7% District of Columbia 30.4% 33.1% 31.2% 30.1% 29.1% 26.6% 19.1% 33.0% 33.6% 32.8% 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 61.3% 52.2% 44.2% Florida 47.1% 48.7% 46.0% 44.6% 48.8% 47.0% 42.5% 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 15.5% 17.0% 17.2% Georgia 35.9% 37.1% 42.5% 44.4% 42.6% 41.0% 42.4% 44.0% 46.0% 47.0% 46.7% 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 29.2% 31.5% 33.0% Guam 2.37% 1.02% 0.96% Hawaii 0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 2.8% 2.9% 3.2% Idaho 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 1.0% 1.5% Illinois 7.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.1% 1.5% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.6% 15.4% 15.5% Indiana 4.4% 2.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.8% 10.1% 11.2% Iowa 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.5% 3.7% 5.4% Kansas 0.6% 4.7% 4.3% 3.5% 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 6.3% 7.1% 7.6% Kentucky 17.0% 18.6% 20.2% 22.9% 24.7% 24.3% 22.5% 20.4% 16.8% 16.5% 14.4% 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.7% 8.7% 9.7% Louisiana 55.2% 51.8% 58.5% 55.0% 50.7% 49.5% 50.1% 51.5% 50.0% 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.9% 32.8% 33.1% Maine 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.7% 1.6% 2.7% Maryland 34.7% 36.7% 38.2% 36.1% 34.9% 32.3% 28.3% 24.9% 22.5% 22.5% 20.7% 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 28.8% 30.9% 32.0% Massachusetts 1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 6.3% 7.8% 9.5% Michigan 3.7% 3.0% 2.1% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.8% 15.2% 15.3% Minnesota 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 4.1% 6.2% 8.5% Mississippi 41.5% 47.0% 44.1% 48.4% 52.3% 51.2% 55.3% 53.7% 57.5% 57.6% 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.6% 37.6% 37.9% Missouri 17.6% 15.9% 18.3% 15.6% 13.2% 10.0% 6.9% 6.7% 5.6% 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.7% 12.5% 13.0% Montana 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.8% 1.2% Nebraska 0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.4% 5.4% 6.4% Nevada 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 7.5% 9.4% 12.1% New Hampshire 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 1.0% 1.7% 2.4% New Jersey 7.7% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 6.4% 5.8% 4.9% 3.8% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 14.4% 14.8% 15.2% New Mexico 0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 2.3% 2.8% 3.2% New York 7.6% 5.3% 4.2% 2.9% 2.3% 2.1% 1.6% 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 17.0% 17.2% 17.5% North Carolina 26.8% 29.4% 32.2% 34.4% 35.9% 35.6% 36.4% 36.4% 36.6% 38.0% 34.7% 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 22.1% 22.6% 22.5% North Dakota 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.6% 4.4% Northern Mariana Islands 0.06% 0.06% 0.1% Ohio 0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 12.1% 13.4% 14.4% Oklahoma 8.4% 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 8.3% 8.7% 9.7% Oregon 0.5% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 2.1% 2.6% 3.2% Pennsylvania 2.4% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.5% 11.9% 12.7% Puerto Rico 10.9% 14.8% 17.5% Rhode Island 6.3% 5.3% 4.8% 4.3% 3.7% 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 5.5% 7.4% 9.1% South Carolina 43.7% 43.2% 48.4% 52.8% 55.6% 56.4% 58.9% 58.6% 58.9% 60.7% 59.8% 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.9% 28.8% 26.8% South Dakota 0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 1.8% 3.0% Tennessee 10.6% 13.2% 17.5% 19.6% 21.4% 22.7% 24.5% 25.5% 25.6% 26.1% 24.4% 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.8% 17.4% 17.3% Texas 27.5% 30.3% 31.0% 24.7% 21.8% 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 12.0% 12.6% 13.6% Utah 0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% 1.6% 2.1% Vermont 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 1.5% 2.2% Virgin Islands (U.S.) 76.62% 76.19% 76.03% Virginia 43.4% 44.6% 47.1% 47.8% 47.9% 46.9% 45.0% 43.3% 41.9% 41.8% 38.4% 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 20.4% 20.7% 20.9% Washington 0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 4.4% 4.8% 5.8% West Virginia 9.5% 9.8% 11.5% 12.1% 11.2% 9.6% 7.8% 5.6% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.5% 4.2% 5.0% Wisconsin 1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 5.0% 6.1% 7.1% 7.7% Wyoming 2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.7% Free blacks as a percentage out of the total black population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[ edit ]

In 1865, all enslaved blacks (African Americans) in the United States were emancipated as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment . However, some U.S. states had previously emancipated some or all of their black population. The table below shows the percentage of free blacks as a percentage of the total black population in various U.S. regions and U.S. states between 1790 and 1860 (the blank areas on the chart below mean that there is no data for those specific regions or states in those specific years). [ citation needed ] Free blacks as a percentage of the total black (African-American) population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860 [14] State/territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 United States 7.9% 10.8% 13.5% 13.2% 13.7% 13.4% 11.9% 11.0% Northeast 40.1% 56.2% 73.5% 83.7% 97.8% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% Midwest 78.7% 52.4% 38.0% 37.7% 34.4% 35.5% 37.6% South 4.7% 6.7% 8.5% 8.2% 8.4% 8.1% 7.0% 6.3% West 97.9% 99.4% Alabama 4.4% 2.2% 1.3% 1.3% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6% Alaska Arizona 100.0% Arkansas 1.4% 3.5% 3.0% 2.3% 1.3% 0.1% California 100.0% 100.0% Colorado 100.0% Connecticut 50.4% 84.9% 95.4% 98.8% 99.7% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% Delaware 30.5% 57.3% 75.9% 74.2% 82.8% 86.7% 88.8% 91.7% District of Columbia 16.2% 30.7% 37.9% 50.5% 66.2% 73.2% 77.8% Florida 5.2% 3.1% 2.3% 1.5% Georgia 1.3% 1.7% 1.7% 1.2% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% Hawaii Idaho Illinois 41.5% 78.5% 33.3% 68.7% 91.6% 100.0% 100.0% Indiana 75.7% 62.4% 86.6% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Iowa 91.5% 100.0% 100.0% Kansas 99.7% Kentucky 0.9% 1.8% 2.1% 2.1% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 4.5% Louisiana 18.0% 13.2% 13.2% 13.1% 6.7% 5.3% Maine 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Maryland 7.2% 15.6% 23.3% 27.0% 33.9% 40.9% 45.3% 49.1% Massachusetts 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Michigan 100.0% 83.3% 100.0% 99.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Minnesota 100.0% 100.0% Mississippi 5.0% 1.2% 1.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2% Missouri 17.4% 3.3% 2.2% 2.6% 2.9% 3.0% Montana Nebraska 81.7% Nevada 100.0% New Hampshire 79.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% New Jersey 19.5% 26.2% 42.0% 62.2% 89.0% 96.9% 99.0% 99.9% New Mexico 100.0% 100.0% New York 17.9% 33.3% 62.8% 74.4% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% North Carolina 4.7% 5.0% 5.7% 6.7% 7.4% 8.5% 8.7% 8.4% North Dakota Ohio 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Oklahoma Oregon 100.0% 100.0% Pennsylvania 63.6% 89.5% 96.6% 99.3% 98.9% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% Rhode Island 78.2% 89.7% 97.1% 98.7% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% South Carolina 1.7% 2.1% 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 2.4% South Dakota N/A [a] Tennessee 9.6% 2.2% 2.9% 3.3% 3.1% 2.9% 2.6% 2.6% Texas 0.7% 0.2% Utah 48.0% 50.8% Vermont 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Virginia 4.1% 5.6% 7.3% 8.2% 9.3% 10.1% 10.2% 10.5% Washington 100.0% 100.0% West Virginia 11.6% 6.8% 10.5% 8.5% 10.9% 14.1% 13.1% 13.1% Wisconsin 100.0% 51.6% 94.4% 100.0% 100.0% Wyoming a ^ There were no blacks at all—either free or enslaved—in South Dakota in 1860. [14] See also[ edit ]

African-American neighborhoods

List of African-American neighborhoods

List of U.S. cities with large African-American populations

List of U.S. counties with African-American majority populations

List of U.S. metropolitan areas with large African-American populations

Black Southerners

[ edit ]

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Proportion of African Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
Proportion of black Americans in each county of the fifty states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

The following is a list of U.S. states, territories and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans of full or partial descent including those of Hispanic origin, in the population. Considering only those who marked "black" and no other race in combination as in the first table, the percentage was 12.4% in 2020, down from 12.6% in 2010.[1] Considering those who marked "black" and any other race in combination as in the second table the percentage increased from 13.6% to 14.2%.

2020 census (single race)

% Black or African
American alone[2]
Rank State or territory Black or African American alone
Population (2020)
76.0% 1
United States Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
80,908[3]
44.17% 2
District of Columbia
385,810
37.94% 3
Mississippi
1,084,481
33.13% 4
Louisiana
1,564,023
33.03% 5
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia
3,538,146
32.01% 6
Maryland
2,220,472
29.80% 7
Alabama
1,696,162
27.09% 8
South Carolina
1,680,531
23.50% 9
North Carolina
2,350,217
22.11% 10
Delaware
218,899
21.60% 11
Virginia
1,607,581
19.80% 12
Tennessee
1,492,948
17.11% 13
Florida
3,703,952
17.10% 14
Arkansas
853,783
16.89% 15
New York (state)
New York
3,533,873
16.19% 16
Illinois
2,108,271
15.76% 17
Michigan
1,576,579
15.19% 18
New Jersey
1,519,770
14.20%
United States of America
47,511,020
12.58% 19
Ohio
1,258,781
12.21% 20
Texas
3,964,700
11.40% 21
Missouri
799,840
11.30% 22
Pennsylvania
1,490,169
10.88% 23
Connecticut
388,675
10.80% 24
Nevada
404,739
10.60% 25
Indiana
748,513
8.09% 26
Kentucky
462,417
7.39% 27
Oklahoma
389,961
7.09% 28
Massachusetts
594,029
7.08% 29
Minnesota
598,434
7.46% 30
Puerto Rico
328,711
6.40% 31
Wisconsin
476,256
6.30% 32
California
2,825,293
5.79% 33
Kansas
308,809
5.78% 34
Rhode Island
92,168
5.77% 35
Nebraska
196,535
5.76% 36
Arizona
439,150
5.19% 37
Colorado
334,828
5.14% 38
Iowa
231,972
5.09% 39
Washington (state)
Washington
407,565
3.9% 40
North Dakota
30,067
3.76% 41
West Virginia
165,813
3.70% 42
Alaska
31,898
2.28% 43
New Mexico
55,904
2.26% 44
Oregon
182,655
2.24% 45
South Dakota
27,842
1.90% 46
Maine
25,752
1.60% 47
Hawaii
23,417
1.50% 48
New Hampshire
20,127
1.40% 49
Vermont
9,034
1.20% 50
Utah
62,058
1.0%[4] 51
Guam
1,540[4]
0.99% 52
Idaho
15,726
0.91% 53
Wyoming
5,232
0.50% 54
Montana
5,484
0.1%[5] 55
Northern Mariana Islands
55[5]
0.02%[6] 56
American Samoa
13[6]

African-American proportion of state and territory populations (1790–2020)[edit]

From 1787 to 1868, enslaved African-Americans were counted in the U.S. census under the Three-fifths Compromise. The compromise was an agreement reached during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention over the counting of slaves in determining a state's total population. This count would determine the number of seats in the House of Representatives and how much each state would pay in taxes. The compromise counted three-fifths of each state's slave population toward that state's total population for the purpose of apportioning the House of Representatives. Even though slaves were denied voting rights, this gave Southern states more Representatives and more presidential electoral votes than if slaves had not been counted. Free blacks and indentured servants were not subject to the compromise, and each was counted as one full person for representation.[7]

In the United States Constitution, the Three-fifths Compromise is part of Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3. Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) later superseded this clause and explicitly repealed the compromise.

African-American % of Population (1790–1990) Black or African American alone or in combination (2000-2020) by U.S. state and territory[8][9][10][11][12][13]
State/Territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
United States
United States of America
19.3% 18.9% 19.0% 18.4% 18.1% 16.8% 15.7% 14.1% 12.7% 13.1% 11.9% 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.9% 13.6% 14.2%
Alabama
Alabama
41.4% 29.0% 33.2% 38.5% 43.3% 44.7% 45.4% 47.7% 47.5% 44.8% 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.3% 26.8%
Alaska
Alaska
0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 4.3% 4.7% 4.8%
American Samoa
American Samoa
0.02% 0.04% 0.02%
Arizona
Arizona
0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 1.5% 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.6% 5.0% 6.2%
Arkansas
Arkansas
13.0% 11.7% 15.5% 20.9% 22.7% 25.6% 25.2% 26.3% 27.4% 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 16.0% 16.1% 16.5%
California
California
1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.9% 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 7.4% 7.2% 7.1%
Colorado
Colorado
0.1% 1.1% 1.3% 1.5% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 4.4% 5.0% 5.5%
Connecticut
Connecticut
2.3% 2.5% 2.6% 2.9% 2.7% 2.6% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.6% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 10.0% 11.3% 13.0%
Delaware
Delaware
21.6% 22.4% 23.8% 24.0% 24.9% 25.0% 22.2% 19.3% 18.2% 18.0% 16.8% 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 20.1% 22.9% 24.7%
Washington, D.C.
District of Columbia
30.4% 33.1% 31.2% 30.1% 29.1% 26.6% 19.1% 33.0% 33.6% 32.8% 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 61.3% 52.2% 44.2%
Florida
Florida
47.1% 48.7% 46.0% 44.6% 48.8% 47.0% 42.5% 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 15.5% 17.0% 17.2%
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia
35.9% 37.1% 42.5% 44.4% 42.6% 41.0% 42.4% 44.0% 46.0% 47.0% 46.7% 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 29.2% 31.5% 33.0%
Guam
Guam
2.37% 1.02% 0.96%
Hawaii
Hawaii
0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 2.8% 2.9% 3.2%
Idaho
Idaho
0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.6% 1.0% 1.5%
Illinois
Illinois
7.4% 6.4% 2.5% 1.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.4% 1.1% 1.5% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.6% 15.4% 15.5%
Indiana
Indiana
4.4% 2.6% 1.0% 1.1% 1.0% 1.1% 0.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.1% 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.8% 10.1% 11.2%
Iowa
Iowa
0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.5% 3.7% 5.4%
Kansas
Kansas
0.6% 4.7% 4.3% 3.5% 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 6.3% 7.1% 7.6%
Kentucky
Kentucky
17.0% 18.6% 20.2% 22.9% 24.7% 24.3% 22.5% 20.4% 16.8% 16.5% 14.4% 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.7% 8.7% 9.7%
Louisiana
Louisiana
55.2% 51.8% 58.5% 55.0% 50.7% 49.5% 50.1% 51.5% 50.0% 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.9% 32.8% 33.1%
Maine
Maine
0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.7% 1.6% 2.7%
Maryland
Maryland
34.7% 36.7% 38.2% 36.1% 34.9% 32.3% 28.3% 24.9% 22.5% 22.5% 20.7% 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 28.8% 30.9% 32.0%
Massachusetts
Massachusetts
1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2% 0.9% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 6.3% 7.8% 9.5%
Michigan
Michigan
3.7% 3.0% 2.1% 0.8% 0.3% 0.6% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.8% 15.2% 15.3%
Minnesota
Minnesota
0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 4.1% 6.2% 8.5%
Mississippi
Mississippi
41.5% 47.0% 44.1% 48.4% 52.3% 51.2% 55.3% 53.7% 57.5% 57.6% 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.6% 37.6% 37.9%
Missouri
Missouri
17.6% 15.9% 18.3% 15.6% 13.2% 10.0% 6.9% 6.7% 5.6% 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.7% 12.5% 13.0%
Montana
Montana
0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.8% 1.2%
Nebraska
Nebraska
0.3% 0.6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.4% 5.4% 6.4%
Nevada
Nevada
0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.5% 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 7.5% 9.4% 12.1%
New Hampshire
New Hampshire
0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 1.0% 1.7% 2.4%
New Jersey
New Jersey
7.7% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 6.4% 5.8% 4.9% 3.8% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 14.4% 14.8% 15.2%
New Mexico
New Mexico
0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 2.3% 2.8% 3.2%
New York (state)
New York
7.6% 5.3% 4.2% 2.9% 2.3% 2.1% 1.6% 1.3% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 17.0% 17.2% 17.5%
North Carolina
North Carolina
26.8% 29.4% 32.2% 34.4% 35.9% 35.6% 36.4% 36.4% 36.6% 38.0% 34.7% 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 22.1% 22.6% 22.5%
North Dakota
North Dakota
1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.6% 4.4%
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
0.06% 0.06% 0.1%
Ohio
Ohio
0.5% 0.8% 0.8% 1.0% 1.1% 1.3% 1.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 12.1% 13.4% 14.4%
Oklahoma
Oklahoma
8.4% 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 8.3% 8.7% 9.7%
Oregon
Oregon
0.5% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 2.1% 2.6% 3.2%
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
2.4% 2.7% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.3% 2.0% 1.9% 2.0% 2.0% 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.5% 11.9% 12.7%
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
10.9% 14.8% 17.5%
Rhode Island
Rhode Island
6.3% 5.3% 4.8% 4.3% 3.7% 3.0% 2.5% 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 5.5% 7.4% 9.1%
South Carolina
South Carolina
43.7% 43.2% 48.4% 52.8% 55.6% 56.4% 58.9% 58.6% 58.9% 60.7% 59.8% 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.9% 28.8% 26.8%
South Dakota
South Dakota
0.0% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 1.8% 3.0%
Tennessee
Tennessee
10.6% 13.2% 17.5% 19.6% 21.4% 22.7% 24.5% 25.5% 25.6% 26.1% 24.4% 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.8% 17.4% 17.3%
Texas
Texas
27.5% 30.3% 31.0% 24.7% 21.8% 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 12.0% 12.6% 13.6%
Utah
Utah
0.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% 1.6% 2.1%
Vermont
Vermont
0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7% 1.5% 2.2%
United States Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
76.62% 76.19% 76.03%
Virginia
Virginia
43.4% 44.6% 47.1% 47.8% 47.9% 46.9% 45.0% 43.3% 41.9% 41.8% 38.4% 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 20.4% 20.7% 20.9%
Washington (state)
Washington
0.3% 0.9% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 4.4% 4.8% 5.8%
West Virginia
West Virginia
9.5% 9.8% 11.5% 12.1% 11.2% 9.6% 7.8% 5.6% 4.1% 4.2% 4.3% 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.5% 4.2% 5.0%
Wisconsin
Wisconsin
1.2% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 5.0% 6.1% 7.1% 7.7%
Wyoming
Wyoming
2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.7%

Free blacks as a percentage out of the total black population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[edit]

In 1865, all enslaved blacks (African Americans) in the United States were emancipated as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment. However, some U.S. states had previously emancipated some or all of their black population. The table below shows the percentage of free blacks as a percentage of the total black population in various U.S. regions and U.S. states between 1790 and 1860 (the blank areas on the chart below mean that there is no data for those specific regions or states in those specific years).[citation needed]

Free blacks as a percentage of the total black (African-American) population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860[14]
State/territory 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860
United States
7.9% 10.8% 13.5% 13.2% 13.7% 13.4% 11.9% 11.0%
Northeast 40.1% 56.2% 73.5% 83.7% 97.8% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0%
Midwest 78.7% 52.4% 38.0% 37.7% 34.4% 35.5% 37.6%
South 4.7% 6.7% 8.5% 8.2% 8.4% 8.1% 7.0% 6.3%
West 97.9% 99.4%
Alabama
4.4% 2.2% 1.3% 1.3% 0.8% 0.7% 0.6%
Alaska
Arizona
100.0%
Arkansas
1.4% 3.5% 3.0% 2.3% 1.3% 0.1%
California
100.0% 100.0%
Colorado
100.0%
Connecticut
50.4% 84.9% 95.4% 98.8% 99.7% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
Delaware
30.5% 57.3% 75.9% 74.2% 82.8% 86.7% 88.8% 91.7%
District of Columbia
16.2% 30.7% 37.9% 50.5% 66.2% 73.2% 77.8%
Florida
5.2% 3.1% 2.3% 1.5%
Georgia
1.3% 1.7% 1.7% 1.2% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8%
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
41.5% 78.5% 33.3% 68.7% 91.6% 100.0% 100.0%
Indiana
75.7% 62.4% 86.6% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Iowa
91.5% 100.0% 100.0%
Kansas
99.7%
Kentucky
0.9% 1.8% 2.1% 2.1% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 4.5%
Louisiana
18.0% 13.2% 13.2% 13.1% 6.7% 5.3%
Maine
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Maryland
7.2% 15.6% 23.3% 27.0% 33.9% 40.9% 45.3% 49.1%
Massachusetts
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Michigan
100.0% 83.3% 100.0% 99.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Minnesota
100.0% 100.0%
Mississippi
5.0% 1.2% 1.4% 0.8% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2%
Missouri
17.4% 3.3% 2.2% 2.6% 2.9% 3.0%
Montana
Nebraska
81.7%
Nevada
100.0%
New Hampshire
79.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
New Jersey
19.5% 26.2% 42.0% 62.2% 89.0% 96.9% 99.0% 99.9%
New Mexico
100.0% 100.0%
New York
17.9% 33.3% 62.8% 74.4% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
North Carolina
4.7% 5.0% 5.7% 6.7% 7.4% 8.5% 8.7% 8.4%
North Dakota
Ohio
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Oklahoma
Oregon
100.0% 100.0%
Pennsylvania
63.6% 89.5% 96.6% 99.3% 98.9% 99.9% 100.0% 100.0%
Rhode Island
78.2% 89.7% 97.1% 98.7% 99.5% 99.8% 100.0% 100.0%
South Carolina
1.7% 2.1% 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% 2.5% 2.3% 2.4%
South Dakota
N/A[a]
Tennessee
9.6% 2.2% 2.9% 3.3% 3.1% 2.9% 2.6% 2.6%
Texas
0.7% 0.2%
Utah
48.0% 50.8%
Vermont
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Virginia
4.1% 5.6% 7.3% 8.2% 9.3% 10.1% 10.2% 10.5%
Washington
100.0% 100.0%
West Virginia
11.6% 6.8% 10.5% 8.5% 10.9% 14.1% 13.1% 13.1%
Wisconsin
100.0% 51.6% 94.4% 100.0% 100.0%
Wyoming

a^ There were no blacks at all—either free or enslaved—in South Dakota in 1860.[14]

See also[edit]

[edit]

Faruq Hunter
Faruq Hunterhttp://www.freedomnation.me
Faruq Hunter is the founder of the Freedom Nation, an aspiring real-estate community development company providing development, financial tools, programs and services to streamline the development of environments of peace and prosperity for underserved communities on a global scale, Uniquely, the company is dedicated to embodying practices of fairness, equality, transparency and communal involvement as a part of its everyday operations and cultural DNA.

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